Calculate the readability of text(s) using one of a variety of computed indexes.

textstat_readability(x, measure = c("all", "ARI", "ARI.simple", "Bormuth",
  "Bormuth.GP", "Coleman", "Coleman.C2", "Coleman.Liau", "Coleman.Liau.grade",
  "Coleman.Liau.short", "Dale.Chall", "Dale.Chall.old", "Dale.Chall.PSK",
  "Danielson.Bryan", "Danielson.Bryan.2", "Dickes.Steiwer", "DRP", "ELF",
  "Farr.Jenkins.Paterson", "Flesch", "Flesch.PSK", "Flesch.Kincaid", "FOG",
  "FOG.PSK", "FOG.NRI", "FORCAST", "FORCAST.RGL", "Fucks", "Linsear.Write",
  "LIW", "nWS", "nWS.2", "nWS.3", "nWS.4", "RIX", "Scrabble", "SMOG", "SMOG.C",
  "SMOG.simple",      "SMOG.de", "Spache", "Spache.old", "Strain",
  "Traenkle.Bailer", "Traenkle.Bailer.2", "Wheeler.Smith", "meanSentenceLength",
  "meanWordSyllables"), remove_hyphens = TRUE, min_sentence_length = 1,
  max_sentence_length = 10000, drop = TRUE, ...)

Arguments

x

a character or corpus object containing the texts

measure

character vector defining the readability measure to calculate. Matches are case-insensitive.

remove_hyphens

if TRUE, treat constituent words in hyphenated as separate terms, for purposes of computing word lengths, e.g. "decision-making" as two terms of lengths 8 and 6 characters respectively, rather than as a single word of 15 characters

min_sentence_length, max_sentence_length

set the minimum and maximum sentence lengths (in tokens, excluding punctuation) to include in the computation of readability. This makes it easy to exclude "sentences" that may not really be sentences, such as section titles, table elements, and other cruft that might be in the texts following conversion.

For finer-grained control, consider filtering sentences prior first, including through pattern-matching, using corpus_trim.

drop

if TRUE, the result is returned as a numeric vector if only a single measure is requested; otherwise, a data.frame is returned with each column consisting of a requested measure.

...

not used

Value

a data.frame object consisting of the documents as rows, and the readability statistics as columns

Examples

txt <- c("Readability zero one. Ten, Eleven.", "The cat in a dilapidated tophat.") textstat_readability(txt, "Flesch.Kincaid")
#> text1 text2 #> 13.705000 8.383333
textstat_readability(txt, "Flesch.Kincaid", drop = FALSE)
#> Flesch.Kincaid #> text1 13.705000 #> text2 8.383333
textstat_readability(txt, c("FOG", "FOG.PSK", "FOG.NRI"))
#> FOG FOG.PSK FOG.NRI #> text1 17.000000 4.608659 -1.3875 #> text2 9.066667 3.254382 -1.2600
inaugReadability <- textstat_readability(data_corpus_inaugural, "all") round(cor(inaugReadability), 2)
#> ARI ARI.simple Bormuth Bormuth.GP Coleman Coleman.C2 #> ARI 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.58 -0.77 #> ARI.simple 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.57 -0.76 #> Bormuth -0.99 -0.99 1.00 -0.93 0.48 0.69 #> Bormuth.GP 0.90 0.90 -0.93 1.00 -0.34 -0.52 #> Coleman -0.58 -0.57 0.48 -0.34 1.00 0.96 #> Coleman.C2 -0.77 -0.76 0.69 -0.52 0.96 1.00 #> Coleman.Liau -0.81 -0.80 0.73 -0.56 0.90 0.97 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.81 0.80 -0.73 0.56 -0.90 -0.97 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.81 0.80 -0.73 0.56 -0.90 -0.97 #> Dale.Chall -0.99 -0.99 1.00 -0.93 0.47 0.68 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.99 0.99 -1.00 0.93 -0.47 -0.68 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.99 0.99 -1.00 0.93 -0.47 -0.68 #> Danielson.Bryan 1.00 1.00 -0.98 0.88 -0.63 -0.81 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.31 -0.31 0.19 -0.04 0.89 0.79 #> Dickes.Steiwer -1.00 -1.00 1.00 -0.91 0.54 0.74 #> DRP 0.99 0.99 -1.00 0.93 -0.48 -0.69 #> ELF 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.61 -0.79 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.99 -0.99 1.00 -0.93 0.48 0.69 #> Flesch -0.97 -0.97 0.93 -0.82 0.75 0.89 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.98 -0.96 0.86 -0.70 -0.86 #> Flesch.Kincaid 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.61 -0.79 #> Coleman.Liau Coleman.Liau.grade Coleman.Liau.short #> ARI -0.81 0.81 0.81 #> ARI.simple -0.80 0.80 0.80 #> Bormuth 0.73 -0.73 -0.73 #> Bormuth.GP -0.56 0.56 0.56 #> Coleman 0.90 -0.90 -0.90 #> Coleman.C2 0.97 -0.97 -0.97 #> Coleman.Liau 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -1.00 1.00 1.00 #> Coleman.Liau.short -1.00 1.00 1.00 #> Dale.Chall 0.72 -0.72 -0.72 #> Dale.Chall.old -0.72 0.72 0.72 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -0.72 0.72 0.72 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.85 0.85 0.85 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.81 -0.81 -0.81 #> Dickes.Steiwer 0.78 -0.78 -0.78 #> DRP -0.73 0.73 0.73 #> ELF -0.81 0.81 0.81 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 0.73 -0.73 -0.73 #> Flesch 0.91 -0.91 -0.91 #> Flesch.PSK -0.88 0.88 0.88 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.83 0.83 0.83 #> Dale.Chall Dale.Chall.old Dale.Chall.PSK Danielson.Bryan #> ARI -0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 #> ARI.simple -0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 #> Bormuth 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Bormuth.GP -0.93 0.93 0.93 0.88 #> Coleman 0.47 -0.47 -0.47 -0.63 #> Coleman.C2 0.68 -0.68 -0.68 -0.81 #> Coleman.Liau 0.72 -0.72 -0.72 -0.85 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.72 0.72 0.72 0.85 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.72 0.72 0.72 0.85 #> Dale.Chall 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old -1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.98 0.98 0.98 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.18 -0.18 -0.18 -0.38 #> Dickes.Steiwer 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> DRP -1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 #> ELF -0.98 0.98 0.98 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Flesch 0.93 -0.93 -0.93 -0.98 #> Flesch.PSK -0.96 0.96 0.96 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.98 0.98 0.98 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 Dickes.Steiwer DRP ELF #> ARI -0.31 -1.00 0.99 1.00 #> ARI.simple -0.31 -1.00 0.99 1.00 #> Bormuth 0.19 1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> Bormuth.GP -0.04 -0.91 0.93 0.90 #> Coleman 0.89 0.54 -0.48 -0.61 #> Coleman.C2 0.79 0.74 -0.69 -0.79 #> Coleman.Liau 0.81 0.78 -0.73 -0.81 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.81 -0.78 0.73 0.81 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.81 -0.78 0.73 0.81 #> Dale.Chall 0.18 1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old -0.18 -1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -0.18 -1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.38 -0.99 0.98 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 1.00 0.26 -0.19 -0.33 #> Dickes.Steiwer 0.26 1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> DRP -0.19 -1.00 1.00 0.99 #> ELF -0.33 -0.99 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 0.18 1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> Flesch 0.52 0.96 -0.93 -0.97 #> Flesch.PSK -0.45 -0.98 0.96 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.34 -1.00 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson Flesch Flesch.PSK Flesch.Kincaid #> ARI -0.99 -0.97 0.99 1.00 #> ARI.simple -0.99 -0.97 0.98 1.00 #> Bormuth 1.00 0.93 -0.96 -0.99 #> Bormuth.GP -0.93 -0.82 0.86 0.90 #> Coleman 0.48 0.75 -0.70 -0.61 #> Coleman.C2 0.69 0.89 -0.86 -0.79 #> Coleman.Liau 0.73 0.91 -0.88 -0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.73 -0.91 0.88 0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.73 -0.91 0.88 0.83 #> Dale.Chall 1.00 0.93 -0.96 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old -1.00 -0.93 0.96 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -1.00 -0.93 0.96 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.98 -0.98 0.99 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.18 0.52 -0.45 -0.34 #> Dickes.Steiwer 1.00 0.96 -0.98 -1.00 #> DRP -1.00 -0.93 0.96 0.99 #> ELF -0.99 -0.97 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 1.00 0.93 -0.96 -0.99 #> Flesch 0.93 1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Flesch.PSK -0.96 -1.00 1.00 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.99 -0.98 0.99 1.00 #> FOG FOG.PSK FOG.NRI FORCAST FORCAST.RGL Fucks #> ARI 1.00 1.00 0.49 0.58 0.58 1.00 #> ARI.simple 1.00 1.00 0.49 0.57 0.57 1.00 #> Bormuth -0.98 -1.00 -0.46 -0.48 -0.48 -1.00 #> Bormuth.GP 0.88 0.91 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.92 #> Coleman -0.63 -0.54 -0.47 -1.00 -1.00 -0.53 #> Coleman.C2 -0.81 -0.74 -0.54 -0.96 -0.96 -0.73 #> Coleman.Liau -0.84 -0.77 -0.54 -0.90 -0.90 -0.77 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.84 0.77 0.54 0.90 0.90 0.77 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.84 0.78 0.54 0.90 0.90 0.77 #> Dale.Chall -0.98 -1.00 -0.45 -0.47 -0.47 -1.00 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.98 1.00 0.45 0.47 0.47 1.00 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.98 1.00 0.45 0.47 0.47 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan 1.00 0.99 0.50 0.63 0.63 0.99 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.37 -0.26 -0.37 -0.89 -0.89 -0.25 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.99 -1.00 -0.46 -0.54 -0.54 -1.00 #> DRP 0.98 1.00 0.46 0.48 0.48 1.00 #> ELF 0.99 0.99 0.50 0.61 0.61 0.99 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.98 -1.00 -0.46 -0.48 -0.48 -1.00 #> Flesch -0.98 -0.96 -0.53 -0.75 -0.75 -0.95 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.98 0.52 0.70 0.70 0.97 #> Flesch.Kincaid 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.61 0.61 0.99 #> Linsear.Write LIW nWS nWS.2 nWS.3 nWS.4 RIX #> ARI 0.98 1.00 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 #> ARI.simple 0.98 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 #> Bormuth -0.96 -0.98 -0.94 -0.94 -0.96 -0.98 -0.98 #> Bormuth.GP 0.88 0.88 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.88 0.89 #> Coleman -0.65 -0.64 -0.74 -0.73 -0.68 -0.63 -0.63 #> Coleman.C2 -0.81 -0.81 -0.89 -0.88 -0.84 -0.81 -0.80 #> Coleman.Liau -0.84 -0.85 -0.91 -0.90 -0.88 -0.84 -0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.84 0.85 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.84 0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.84 0.85 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.84 0.83 #> Dale.Chall -0.96 -0.98 -0.93 -0.94 -0.96 -0.98 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.96 0.98 0.93 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.96 0.98 0.93 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.40 -0.38 -0.51 -0.49 -0.44 -0.37 -0.36 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.98 -0.99 -0.96 -0.96 -0.98 -0.99 -0.99 #> DRP 0.96 0.98 0.94 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 #> ELF 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.96 -0.98 -0.94 -0.94 -0.96 -0.98 -0.98 #> Flesch -0.98 -0.98 -1.00 -1.00 -0.99 -0.98 -0.98 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.99 #> Scrabble SMOG SMOG.C SMOG.simple SMOG.de Spache #> ARI -0.01 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.99 #> ARI.simple -0.01 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.99 #> Bormuth -0.03 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -1.00 #> Bormuth.GP -0.02 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.93 #> Coleman 0.35 -0.71 -0.71 -0.71 -0.71 -0.47 #> Coleman.C2 0.25 -0.87 -0.87 -0.87 -0.87 -0.68 #> Coleman.Liau 0.19 -0.90 -0.89 -0.90 -0.90 -0.72 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.19 0.90 0.89 0.90 0.90 0.72 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.19 0.90 0.89 0.90 0.90 0.72 #> Dale.Chall -0.04 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -1.00 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.04 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.00 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.04 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.04 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.32 -0.48 -0.47 -0.48 -0.48 -0.18 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.01 -0.96 -0.96 -0.96 -0.96 -1.00 #> DRP 0.03 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.00 #> ELF -0.04 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.03 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -1.00 #> Flesch 0.11 -0.99 -0.99 -0.99 -0.99 -0.93 #> Flesch.PSK -0.08 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.96 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.03 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 #> Spache.old Strain Traenkle.Bailer Traenkle.Bailer.2 #> ARI 0.99 1.00 -1.00 -0.75 #> ARI.simple 0.99 1.00 -1.00 -0.75 #> Bormuth -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.67 #> Bormuth.GP 0.93 0.92 -0.91 -0.51 #> Coleman -0.47 -0.55 0.55 0.92 #> Coleman.C2 -0.68 -0.74 0.75 0.96 #> Coleman.Liau -0.72 -0.77 0.79 0.99 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.72 0.77 -0.79 -0.99 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.72 0.77 -0.79 -0.99 #> Dale.Chall -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.66 #> Dale.Chall.old 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -0.66 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -0.66 #> Danielson.Bryan 0.98 0.99 -0.99 -0.80 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.18 -0.26 0.27 0.85 #> Dickes.Steiwer -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.72 #> DRP 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -0.67 #> ELF 0.98 1.00 -0.99 -0.76 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.66 #> Flesch -0.93 -0.96 0.96 0.88 #> Flesch.PSK 0.96 0.98 -0.98 -0.84 #> Flesch.Kincaid 0.98 1.00 -1.00 -0.78 #> Wheeler.Smith meanSentenceLength meanWordSyllables #> ARI 1.00 0.99 0.68 #> ARI.simple 1.00 0.99 0.67 #> Bormuth -0.99 -1.00 -0.58 #> Bormuth.GP 0.90 0.93 0.45 #> Coleman -0.61 -0.47 -0.96 #> Coleman.C2 -0.79 -0.68 -0.96 #> Coleman.Liau -0.81 -0.72 -0.95 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.81 0.72 0.95 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.81 0.72 0.95 #> Dale.Chall -0.98 -1.00 -0.58 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.98 1.00 0.58 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.98 1.00 0.58 #> Danielson.Bryan 1.00 0.98 0.73 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.33 -0.18 -0.88 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.99 -1.00 -0.64 #> DRP 0.99 1.00 0.58 #> ELF 1.00 0.98 0.70 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.99 -1.00 -0.58 #> Flesch -0.97 -0.93 -0.84 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.96 0.79 #> Flesch.Kincaid 1.00 0.98 0.71 #> [ reached getOption("max.print") -- omitted 26 rows ]
textstat_readability(data_corpus_inaugural, measure = "Flesch.Kincaid")
#> 1789-Washington 1793-Washington 1797-Adams 1801-Jefferson 1805-Jefferson #> 28.432155 17.151759 28.692087 19.295924 21.917088 #> 1809-Madison 1813-Madison 1817-Monroe 1821-Monroe 1825-Adams #> 25.557611 18.034452 14.443950 16.773058 19.748273 #> 1829-Jackson 1833-Jackson 1837-VanBuren 1841-Harrison 1845-Polk #> 21.893148 19.958757 20.263524 19.355855 16.406306 #> 1849-Taylor 1853-Pierce 1857-Buchanan 1861-Lincoln 1865-Lincoln #> 23.748805 16.438241 16.110868 13.661936 11.774929 #> 1869-Grant 1873-Grant 1877-Hayes 1881-Garfield 1885-Cleveland #> 14.008426 15.082444 20.297851 14.042973 19.052937 #> 1889-Harrison 1893-Cleveland 1897-McKinley 1901-McKinley 1905-Roosevelt #> 14.944583 18.248838 15.854298 12.728640 13.959254 #> 1909-Taft 1913-Wilson 1917-Wilson 1921-Harding 1925-Coolidge #> 17.099757 11.707659 11.780913 13.214469 11.626699 #> 1929-Hoover 1933-Roosevelt 1937-Roosevelt 1941-Roosevelt 1945-Roosevelt #> 13.259377 11.640683 10.619558 9.687985 9.175680 #> 1949-Truman 1953-Eisenhower 1957-Eisenhower 1961-Kennedy 1965-Johnson #> 11.328244 10.328852 8.094908 11.822997 7.550602 #> 1969-Nixon 1973-Nixon 1977-Carter 1981-Reagan 1985-Reagan #> 9.235663 12.288965 11.670742 9.798608 10.420294 #> 1989-Bush 1993-Clinton 1997-Clinton 2001-Bush 2005-Bush #> 7.147029 10.374204 9.828863 8.918201 11.036277 #> 2009-Obama 2013-Obama 2017-Trump #> 10.229426 11.734767 9.163084
inaugReadability <- textstat_readability(data_corpus_inaugural, "all") round(cor(inaugReadability), 2)
#> ARI ARI.simple Bormuth Bormuth.GP Coleman Coleman.C2 #> ARI 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.58 -0.77 #> ARI.simple 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.57 -0.76 #> Bormuth -0.99 -0.99 1.00 -0.93 0.48 0.69 #> Bormuth.GP 0.90 0.90 -0.93 1.00 -0.34 -0.52 #> Coleman -0.58 -0.57 0.48 -0.34 1.00 0.96 #> Coleman.C2 -0.77 -0.76 0.69 -0.52 0.96 1.00 #> Coleman.Liau -0.81 -0.80 0.73 -0.56 0.90 0.97 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.81 0.80 -0.73 0.56 -0.90 -0.97 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.81 0.80 -0.73 0.56 -0.90 -0.97 #> Dale.Chall -0.99 -0.99 1.00 -0.93 0.47 0.68 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.99 0.99 -1.00 0.93 -0.47 -0.68 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.99 0.99 -1.00 0.93 -0.47 -0.68 #> Danielson.Bryan 1.00 1.00 -0.98 0.88 -0.63 -0.81 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.31 -0.31 0.19 -0.04 0.89 0.79 #> Dickes.Steiwer -1.00 -1.00 1.00 -0.91 0.54 0.74 #> DRP 0.99 0.99 -1.00 0.93 -0.48 -0.69 #> ELF 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.61 -0.79 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.99 -0.99 1.00 -0.93 0.48 0.69 #> Flesch -0.97 -0.97 0.93 -0.82 0.75 0.89 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.98 -0.96 0.86 -0.70 -0.86 #> Flesch.Kincaid 1.00 1.00 -0.99 0.90 -0.61 -0.79 #> Coleman.Liau Coleman.Liau.grade Coleman.Liau.short #> ARI -0.81 0.81 0.81 #> ARI.simple -0.80 0.80 0.80 #> Bormuth 0.73 -0.73 -0.73 #> Bormuth.GP -0.56 0.56 0.56 #> Coleman 0.90 -0.90 -0.90 #> Coleman.C2 0.97 -0.97 -0.97 #> Coleman.Liau 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -1.00 1.00 1.00 #> Coleman.Liau.short -1.00 1.00 1.00 #> Dale.Chall 0.72 -0.72 -0.72 #> Dale.Chall.old -0.72 0.72 0.72 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -0.72 0.72 0.72 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.85 0.85 0.85 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.81 -0.81 -0.81 #> Dickes.Steiwer 0.78 -0.78 -0.78 #> DRP -0.73 0.73 0.73 #> ELF -0.81 0.81 0.81 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 0.73 -0.73 -0.73 #> Flesch 0.91 -0.91 -0.91 #> Flesch.PSK -0.88 0.88 0.88 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.83 0.83 0.83 #> Dale.Chall Dale.Chall.old Dale.Chall.PSK Danielson.Bryan #> ARI -0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 #> ARI.simple -0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 #> Bormuth 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Bormuth.GP -0.93 0.93 0.93 0.88 #> Coleman 0.47 -0.47 -0.47 -0.63 #> Coleman.C2 0.68 -0.68 -0.68 -0.81 #> Coleman.Liau 0.72 -0.72 -0.72 -0.85 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.72 0.72 0.72 0.85 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.72 0.72 0.72 0.85 #> Dale.Chall 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old -1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.98 0.98 0.98 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.18 -0.18 -0.18 -0.38 #> Dickes.Steiwer 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> DRP -1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 #> ELF -0.98 0.98 0.98 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Flesch 0.93 -0.93 -0.93 -0.98 #> Flesch.PSK -0.96 0.96 0.96 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.98 0.98 0.98 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 Dickes.Steiwer DRP ELF #> ARI -0.31 -1.00 0.99 1.00 #> ARI.simple -0.31 -1.00 0.99 1.00 #> Bormuth 0.19 1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> Bormuth.GP -0.04 -0.91 0.93 0.90 #> Coleman 0.89 0.54 -0.48 -0.61 #> Coleman.C2 0.79 0.74 -0.69 -0.79 #> Coleman.Liau 0.81 0.78 -0.73 -0.81 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.81 -0.78 0.73 0.81 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.81 -0.78 0.73 0.81 #> Dale.Chall 0.18 1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old -0.18 -1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -0.18 -1.00 1.00 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.38 -0.99 0.98 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 1.00 0.26 -0.19 -0.33 #> Dickes.Steiwer 0.26 1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> DRP -0.19 -1.00 1.00 0.99 #> ELF -0.33 -0.99 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 0.18 1.00 -1.00 -0.99 #> Flesch 0.52 0.96 -0.93 -0.97 #> Flesch.PSK -0.45 -0.98 0.96 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.34 -1.00 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson Flesch Flesch.PSK Flesch.Kincaid #> ARI -0.99 -0.97 0.99 1.00 #> ARI.simple -0.99 -0.97 0.98 1.00 #> Bormuth 1.00 0.93 -0.96 -0.99 #> Bormuth.GP -0.93 -0.82 0.86 0.90 #> Coleman 0.48 0.75 -0.70 -0.61 #> Coleman.C2 0.69 0.89 -0.86 -0.79 #> Coleman.Liau 0.73 0.91 -0.88 -0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.73 -0.91 0.88 0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.73 -0.91 0.88 0.83 #> Dale.Chall 1.00 0.93 -0.96 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old -1.00 -0.93 0.96 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK -1.00 -0.93 0.96 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.98 -0.98 0.99 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.18 0.52 -0.45 -0.34 #> Dickes.Steiwer 1.00 0.96 -0.98 -1.00 #> DRP -1.00 -0.93 0.96 0.99 #> ELF -0.99 -0.97 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson 1.00 0.93 -0.96 -0.99 #> Flesch 0.93 1.00 -1.00 -0.98 #> Flesch.PSK -0.96 -1.00 1.00 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.99 -0.98 0.99 1.00 #> FOG FOG.PSK FOG.NRI FORCAST FORCAST.RGL Fucks #> ARI 1.00 1.00 0.49 0.58 0.58 1.00 #> ARI.simple 1.00 1.00 0.49 0.57 0.57 1.00 #> Bormuth -0.98 -1.00 -0.46 -0.48 -0.48 -1.00 #> Bormuth.GP 0.88 0.91 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.92 #> Coleman -0.63 -0.54 -0.47 -1.00 -1.00 -0.53 #> Coleman.C2 -0.81 -0.74 -0.54 -0.96 -0.96 -0.73 #> Coleman.Liau -0.84 -0.77 -0.54 -0.90 -0.90 -0.77 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.84 0.77 0.54 0.90 0.90 0.77 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.84 0.78 0.54 0.90 0.90 0.77 #> Dale.Chall -0.98 -1.00 -0.45 -0.47 -0.47 -1.00 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.98 1.00 0.45 0.47 0.47 1.00 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.98 1.00 0.45 0.47 0.47 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan 1.00 0.99 0.50 0.63 0.63 0.99 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.37 -0.26 -0.37 -0.89 -0.89 -0.25 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.99 -1.00 -0.46 -0.54 -0.54 -1.00 #> DRP 0.98 1.00 0.46 0.48 0.48 1.00 #> ELF 0.99 0.99 0.50 0.61 0.61 0.99 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.98 -1.00 -0.46 -0.48 -0.48 -1.00 #> Flesch -0.98 -0.96 -0.53 -0.75 -0.75 -0.95 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.98 0.52 0.70 0.70 0.97 #> Flesch.Kincaid 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.61 0.61 0.99 #> Linsear.Write LIW nWS nWS.2 nWS.3 nWS.4 RIX #> ARI 0.98 1.00 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 #> ARI.simple 0.98 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 #> Bormuth -0.96 -0.98 -0.94 -0.94 -0.96 -0.98 -0.98 #> Bormuth.GP 0.88 0.88 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.88 0.89 #> Coleman -0.65 -0.64 -0.74 -0.73 -0.68 -0.63 -0.63 #> Coleman.C2 -0.81 -0.81 -0.89 -0.88 -0.84 -0.81 -0.80 #> Coleman.Liau -0.84 -0.85 -0.91 -0.90 -0.88 -0.84 -0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.84 0.85 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.84 0.83 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.84 0.85 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.84 0.83 #> Dale.Chall -0.96 -0.98 -0.93 -0.94 -0.96 -0.98 -0.98 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.96 0.98 0.93 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.96 0.98 0.93 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.40 -0.38 -0.51 -0.49 -0.44 -0.37 -0.36 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.98 -0.99 -0.96 -0.96 -0.98 -0.99 -0.99 #> DRP 0.96 0.98 0.94 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 #> ELF 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.96 -0.98 -0.94 -0.94 -0.96 -0.98 -0.98 #> Flesch -0.98 -0.98 -1.00 -1.00 -0.99 -0.98 -0.98 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 #> Flesch.Kincaid 0.99 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.99 1.00 0.99 #> Scrabble SMOG SMOG.C SMOG.simple SMOG.de Spache #> ARI -0.01 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.99 #> ARI.simple -0.01 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.99 #> Bormuth -0.03 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -1.00 #> Bormuth.GP -0.02 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.93 #> Coleman 0.35 -0.71 -0.71 -0.71 -0.71 -0.47 #> Coleman.C2 0.25 -0.87 -0.87 -0.87 -0.87 -0.68 #> Coleman.Liau 0.19 -0.90 -0.89 -0.90 -0.90 -0.72 #> Coleman.Liau.grade -0.19 0.90 0.89 0.90 0.90 0.72 #> Coleman.Liau.short -0.19 0.90 0.89 0.90 0.90 0.72 #> Dale.Chall -0.04 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -1.00 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.04 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.00 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.04 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.00 #> Danielson.Bryan -0.04 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 0.32 -0.48 -0.47 -0.48 -0.48 -0.18 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.01 -0.96 -0.96 -0.96 -0.96 -1.00 #> DRP 0.03 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.00 #> ELF -0.04 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.03 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -0.94 -1.00 #> Flesch 0.11 -0.99 -0.99 -0.99 -0.99 -0.93 #> Flesch.PSK -0.08 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.96 #> Flesch.Kincaid -0.03 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 #> Spache.old Strain Traenkle.Bailer Traenkle.Bailer.2 #> ARI 0.99 1.00 -1.00 -0.75 #> ARI.simple 0.99 1.00 -1.00 -0.75 #> Bormuth -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.67 #> Bormuth.GP 0.93 0.92 -0.91 -0.51 #> Coleman -0.47 -0.55 0.55 0.92 #> Coleman.C2 -0.68 -0.74 0.75 0.96 #> Coleman.Liau -0.72 -0.77 0.79 0.99 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.72 0.77 -0.79 -0.99 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.72 0.77 -0.79 -0.99 #> Dale.Chall -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.66 #> Dale.Chall.old 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -0.66 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -0.66 #> Danielson.Bryan 0.98 0.99 -0.99 -0.80 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.18 -0.26 0.27 0.85 #> Dickes.Steiwer -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.72 #> DRP 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -0.67 #> ELF 0.98 1.00 -0.99 -0.76 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -1.00 -1.00 1.00 0.66 #> Flesch -0.93 -0.96 0.96 0.88 #> Flesch.PSK 0.96 0.98 -0.98 -0.84 #> Flesch.Kincaid 0.98 1.00 -1.00 -0.78 #> Wheeler.Smith meanSentenceLength meanWordSyllables #> ARI 1.00 0.99 0.68 #> ARI.simple 1.00 0.99 0.67 #> Bormuth -0.99 -1.00 -0.58 #> Bormuth.GP 0.90 0.93 0.45 #> Coleman -0.61 -0.47 -0.96 #> Coleman.C2 -0.79 -0.68 -0.96 #> Coleman.Liau -0.81 -0.72 -0.95 #> Coleman.Liau.grade 0.81 0.72 0.95 #> Coleman.Liau.short 0.81 0.72 0.95 #> Dale.Chall -0.98 -1.00 -0.58 #> Dale.Chall.old 0.98 1.00 0.58 #> Dale.Chall.PSK 0.98 1.00 0.58 #> Danielson.Bryan 1.00 0.98 0.73 #> Danielson.Bryan.2 -0.33 -0.18 -0.88 #> Dickes.Steiwer -0.99 -1.00 -0.64 #> DRP 0.99 1.00 0.58 #> ELF 1.00 0.98 0.70 #> Farr.Jenkins.Paterson -0.99 -1.00 -0.58 #> Flesch -0.97 -0.93 -0.84 #> Flesch.PSK 0.99 0.96 0.79 #> Flesch.Kincaid 1.00 0.98 0.71 #> [ reached getOption("max.print") -- omitted 26 rows ]